Fermi Science Support Center

Pulsar Ephemerides for Timing LAT Pulsars

Timing pulsars with the LAT requires the use of an ephemeris that covers the time period being analyzed. Below are several resources to provide this useful input to your analysis. These include:

  • High E-dot Radio timing models — Provided by the Pulsar Timing Consortium.
  • Ephemerides for Radio-faint or Radio-quiet LAT Pulsars — Provided by the LAT team.
  • Pulsar Timing Models used in LAT Team Publications — Provided by the LAT team to allow replication of published analyses.
  • Gamma-ray Ephemeris Database in D4 Format — For use with the Fermi Science Tools. Provided by the LAT team early in the mission for some pulsars. (Now obsolete)

Please remember that the collection and analysis of radio and LAT data that goes into generating each ephemeris is a significant time investment. Remember to acknowledge the source of the ephemeris and any appropriate references should you use any of these ephemerides for a publication. Please email the timing contact for the pulsar ephemeris you have used, or contact the Fermi helpdesk if you have any questions regarding this policy.

NOTE: Epoch folding pulsars with the Fermi Science Tools (e.g. using gtpphase and gtpsearch) requires use of a pulsar ephemeris database in the D4 FITS format (based on the EGRET pulsar analysis). An archive of these ephemerides is available for download at the bottom of this page. However, these ephemerides are quite out of date. We strongly recommend contacting the timing observers for the most current information about any pulsar.


High E-dot Pulsar Radio Timing Models

Prior to the launch of Fermi, a group of radio and X-ray astronomers organized a "Fermi pulsar timing consortium" to provide rotation ephemerides for 224 pulsars known at that time to have spin-down power Edot > 1034 erg/s. This campaign is described in Smith et. al, 2008 The consortium agreed to make their work publicly available after Fermi's first year in orbit, to allow phase-folding of gamma-ray pulsars and pulsar-candidates by scientists using data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The rotation ephemerides for 216 pulsars for which timing was obtained, in the form of TEMPO2 parameter files, are available here:

Please take a moment to review the information in the README file before using the data for analysis or publication. Users are STRONGLY encouraged to contact the timing observers for the most current information about any pulsar.


Pulsar Timing Models from LAT data

Some pulsars are radio quiet, or can be better timed using LAT data than radio data. For the most recent timing solutions for these pulsars, please go to the LAT Gamma-ray Pulsar Timing Models page, which is maintained by the LAT team.


Pulsar Timing Models Used in LAT Publications

The following table includes pulsar timing files used in publications of Fermi pulsars. The publication reference is given after the file listing. The radio template is provided when available.

Some pulsars have enough timing noise that phases for gamma rays can be better calculated by a more detailed timing model than is available in the D4 timing database. For such pulsars, analysis using the TEMPO or TEMPO2 radio timing systems is a better choice. An interface to these packages is under development. The TEMPO and TEMPO2 timing solutions are included in the table as .par files. For each pulsar, the preferred timing file is noted in the table in bold.

The rotation parameters are available in two file formats:

  1. In a "D4 FITS" file, to be read by the Fermi LAT Science Tools, as discussed in Smith, Guillemot et al A&A 492, 923 (2008) (DOI:10.1051/0004-6361:200810285) and detailed in the FSSC documentation .
  2. In TEMPO and TEMPO2 ".par" files.
    TEMPO is described at http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/tempo/ .
    TEMPO2 is described at http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/tempo2/ .
    The .par files are described at http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/tempo2/inde.php?n=Documentation.Parameters .

When using these timing solutions in a publication, please refer to the following reference(s), depending on the radio instrument(s) used to obtain them (given in the table below):

Table of Published Ephemerides

Pulsar Name Timing Files Timing
Instrument
Timing Model
Contact
Publication Reference Contact Author(s)
J1055-6028
J1640+2224
J1705-1906
J1732-5049
J1843-1113
J1913+0904
.tgz Multiple
Sources
Xian Hou
David Smith
"Six Faint Gamma-ray Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
Hou, X. et al. 2014, A&A, submitted
arxiv:1407.6271
Xian Hou
David Smith
Lucas Guillemot
J0034-0534 .par
2GHz profile
1.4GHz profile
0.3GHz profile
.tgz
Nançay/WRST
Nançay

Nançay

Westerbork
Lucas Guillemot
Ismael Cognard



Ben Stappers
"Broadband Pulsations from PSR B1821–24: Implications for Emission Models and the Pulsar Population of M28"
Johnson, T. J. et al., ApJ, 2013 778, 106
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/778/2/106
Tyrel Johnson
Lucas Guillemot
Matthew Kerr
Ismael Cognard
Paul Ray
117 gamma-ray
pulsars
(see paper)
.tgz Multiple
Sources
Matthew Kerr
David Smith
"The Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars"
A. A. Abdo et al. 2013, ApJS, 208, 17.
doi:10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/17
Ozlem Celik
Peter den Hartog
Matthew Kerr
Joshua Lande
David Smith
J1939+2134


J1959+2048
.par
profile
profile
.par
profile
profile
Nançay/WRST
Nançay
Westerbork
Nançay/WRST
Nançay
Westerbork
Lucas Guillemot
Ismael Cognard
Ben Stappers
Gemma Janssen
"Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Original Millisecond and Black Widow Pulsars: A Case for Caustic Radio Emission?"
Guillemot, L., et al. 2012, ApJ, 744, 33
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/1/33
Lucas Guillemot
Tyrel Johnson
Christo Venter
Matthew Kerr
J1125-5825

J1446-4701
.par profile

.par profile
Parkes

Parkes
Simon Johnston

Simon Johnston
"The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey - IV. Discovery and polarimetry of millisecond pulsars"
Keith, M. J., et al., 2012, MNRAS, 419, 1752
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19842.x
Mike Keith
J1823-3021A .par profile Nançay/
Jodrell
Ismael Cognard
Damien Parent
"Fermi Detection of a Luminous γ-Ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster"
Freire, P. C. C. et al., 2011, Science, 334, 1107
doi:10.1126/science.1207141
Paolo Freire
Tyrel Johnson
Damien Parent
Christo Venter
J2021+4026 .par LAT Max Razzano
"The identification of the X-ray counterpart to PSR J2021+4026"
Weisskopf, M. C. et al., 2011, ApJ, 743, 74
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/1/74
Martin Weisskopf
Max Razzano
P. Saz Parkinson
Andrea Belfiore
B1259-63 .par Parkes Simon Johnston "Discovery of High-energy Gamma-ray Emission from the Binary System PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around Periastron with Fermi"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2011, ApJ, 736, 11
doi:10.1088/2041-8205/736/1/L11
Aous Abdo
Damien Parent
Kent Wood
Simon Johnston
Andrii Neronov
J2017+0603
J2302+4442
.par profile
.par profile
Nançay
Nançay
Lucas Guillemot
Lucas Guillemot
"Discovery of Two Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi Sources with the Nançay Radio Telescope"
Cognard, I. et al. 2011, ApJ, 732, 47
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/732/1/47
Ismael Cognard
Lucas Guillemot
Tyrel Johnson
J2241-5236 .par LAT Mike Keith "Discovery of millisecond pulsars in radio searches of southern Fermi Large Area Telescope sources"
Keith, M. J., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 1292
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18464.x
Mike Keith
J0007+7303
J0357+3206
J0633+0632
J1124-5916
J1418-6058
J1459-6053
J1732-3131
J1741-2054
J1809-2332
J1813-1246
J1826-1256
J1836+5925
J1907+0602
J1958+2846
J2021+4026
J2032+4127
J2238+5903
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.tgz
LAT
(for all)
Paul Ray
(for all)
"Precise Gamma-Ray Timing and Radio Observations of 17 Fermi Gamma-Ray Pulsars"
Ray, P.S., et al. 2011, ApJS, 194, 17
doi:10.1088/0067-0049/194/2/17
Paul Ray
J2043+2740 .par
profile
Jodrell Aristeidis Noutsos "Radio and γ-ray Constraints on the Emission Geometry and Birthplace of PSR J2043+2740"
Noutsos, A., et al. 2011, ApJ, 728, 77
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/77
Aristeidis Noutsos
Lucas Guillemot
J0614-3329
J1231-1411
J2214+3000
.par
.par
.par
GBT
GBT
GBT
Scott Ransom
Scott Ransom
Scott Ransom
"Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources"
Ransom, S.M. et al. 2011, ApJ, 727, 16
doi:10.1088/2041-8205/727/1/L16
Scott Ransom
Paul Ray
J0007+7303
J0030+0451
J0034-0534
J0205+6449
J0218+4232
J0248+6021
J0357+3206
J0437-4715
J0534+2200
J0613-0200
J0631+1036
J0633+0632
J0633+1746
J0659+1414
J0742-2822
J0751+1807
J0835-4510
J1023-5746
J1028-5820
J1044-5737
J1048-5832
J1057-5226
J1124-5916
J1413-6205
J1418-6058
J1420-6048
J1429-5911
J1459-6053
J1509-5850
J1614-2230
J1709-4429
J1718-3825
J1732-3131
J1741-2054
J1744-1134
J1809-2332
J1813-1246
J1826-1256
J1833-1034
J1836+5925
J1846+0919
J1907+060
J1952+3252
J1954+2836
J1957+5033
J1958+2846
J2021+3651
J2021+4026
J2032+4127
J2043+2740
J2055+2539
J2124-3358
J2229+6114
J2238+59
.tgz Multiple Sources Marie-Hélène Grondin
(for all)
"Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae Around Gamma-ray Pulsars"
Ackermann, M. et al, ApJ, 2011, 726, 35.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/35
J. Lande
A. Van Etten
A. Harding
M. Grondin
M. Lemoine
J1023-5746
J1044-5737
J1413-5205
J1429-5911
J1846+0919
J1954+2836
J1957+5033
J2055+25
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.tgz
LAT
(for all)
Paul Ray
(for all)
"Eight γ-ray Pulsars Discovered in Blind Frequency Searches of Fermi LAT Data"
Saz Parkinson, P.M. et al, ApJ, 2010, 725, 571.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/571
P. Saz Parkinson
Michael Dormody
Marcus Ziegler
Paul Ray
J0248+6021
J2240+5832
.par profile
.par profile
Parkes
GBT/Jodrell
Ismael Cognard
Ismael Cognard
"PSRs J0248+6021 and J2240+5832, young pulsars in the northern galactic plane: Discovery, timing, and gamma-ray observations"
Theureau, G. et al. 2011, A&A, 525, A94
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015317
David Smith
Damien Parent
Gilles Theureau
Geminga
(B0630+18)
(J0633+1746)
D4 .par LAT Paul Ray "Fermi LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2010, ApJ, 720, 272
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/720/1/272
Massimiliano Razzano Fabio Gargano
Denis Dumora
J1513-5908 .par Parkes Simon Johnston "Detection of the energetic pulsar PSR B1509-58 and its pulsar wind nebula in MSH 15-52 using the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2010, ApJ, 714, 927
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/927
Peter den Hartog
Marie-Helene Grondin
Marianne Lemoine
Takeshi Nakamori
Vela
(B0833-45)
(J0835-4510)
.par
LAT Paul Ray "The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2010, ApJ, 713, 154.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/713/1/154
Alice Harding
Tyrel Johnson
Matthew Kerr
Ozlem Celik
Andrea Caliandro
J0034-0534 .par
1.4GHz profile
0.3GHz profile
.tgz
Nançay/WRST
Nançay

Westerbork
Lucas Guillemot
Ismael Cognard

Ben Stappers
"Discovery of Pulsed Gamma rays from PSR J0034-0534 with the Fermi LAT: A Case for Co-located Radio and Gamma-ray Emission Regions"
Abdo, A. A. et al., ApJ, 2010 712, 957
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/712/2/957
Lucas Guillemot
Alice Harding
Tyrel Johnson
Christo Venter
J0631+1036
J0659+1414
J0742-2822
J1420-6048
J1509-5850
J1718-3825
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.par
.tgz
Nançay/Jodrell
Nançay/Parkes
Nançay/Jodrell
Parkes
Parkes
Nançay/Parkes
Cognard/Stappers
Cognard/Johnston
Cognard/Stappers
Simon Johnston
Simon Johnston
Cognard/Johnston
"Gamma-ray and Radio Properties of Six Pulsars Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
P. Weltevrede et al, ApJ, 2010, 708, 1426.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/708/2/1426
P. Weltevrede
Simon Johnston
David Smith
J0534+2200

CORRECTION:
4 milliperiod
gamma-ray
phase shift
.par profile

README
.tgz
Nançay/Jodrell Cognard/Stappers "Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2010, ApJ, 708, 1254
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/708/2/1254
Francesco Loparco
Nicola Mazziota
Marie-Helene Grondin
Marianne Lemoine
J1048-5832
J2229+6114
.par profile
.par profile
Parkes
GBT/Jodrell
Simon Johnston
Camilo/Stappers
"Fermi LAT detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the Vela-like pulsars PSR J1048-5832 and PSR J2229+6114"
Abdo, A. A. et al., ApJ, 2009, 706, 1331
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/706/2/1331
Alice Harding
Damien Parent
Massimiliano Razzano
J0007+7303
J0030+0451
J0205+6449
J0218+4232
J0248+6021
J0357+32
J0437-4715
J0534+2200
J0613-0200
J0631+1036
J0633+0632
J0633+1746
J0659+1414
J0742-2822
J0751+1807
J0835-4510
J1028-5819
J1048-5832
J1057-5226
J1124-5916
J1418-6058
J1420-6048
J1459-60
J1509-5850
J1614-2230
J1709-4429
J1718-3825
J1732-31
J1741-2054
J1744-1134
J1747-2958
J1809-2332
J1813-1246
J1826-1256
J1833-1034
J1836+5925
J1907+06
J1952-3252
J1958+2826
J2021+3651
J2021+4026
J2032+4127
J2043+2740
J2124-3358
J2229+6114
J2238+59

.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.par
.par
.par profile
.par
.par
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par profile
.par
.tgz
LAT
Nançay
GBT
Nançay/WSRT
Nançay
LAT
Parkes
Nançay/Jodrell
Nançay
Jodrell/Nançay
LAT
LAT
Nançay/Parkes
Nançay/Parkes
Nançay
Parkes
Parkes
Parkes
Parkes
Parkes/LAT
LAT
Parkes
LAT
Parkes
GBT
Parkes
Parkes
LAT
GBT
Nançay
GBT
LAT
LAT
LAT
GBT
LAT
LAT
Nançay
LAT
GBT
LAT
GBT
Nançay
Nançay
GBT/Jodrell
LAT

Paul Ray
Ismael Cognard
Fernando Camilo
Cognard/Stappers
Ismael Cognard
Paul Ray
Simon Johnston
Cognard/Stappers
Ismael Cognard
Stappers/Cognard
Paul Ray
Paul Ray
Cognard/Johnston
Cognard/Johnston
Ismael Cognard
Simon Johnston
Simon Johnston
Simon Johnston
Simon Johnston
Johnston/Ray
Paul Ray
Simon Johnston
Paul Ray
Simon Johnston
Fernando Camilo
Simon Johnston
Simon Johnston
Paul Ray
Fernando Camilo
Ismael Cognard
Fernando Camilo
Paul Ray
Paul Ray
Paul Ray
Fernando Camilo
Paul Ray
Paul Ray
Ismael Cognard
Paul Ray
Fernando Camilo
Paul Ray
Fernando Camilo
Ismael Cognard
Ismael Cognard
Camilo/Stappers
Paul Ray

"The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars"
Abdo, A. A. et al, ApJS, 2010, 187, 460.
doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460
Andrea Caliandro
Elizabeth Ferrara
Damien Parent
Roger Romani
J0030+0451

J0218+4232


J0437-4715

J0613-0200

J0751+1807

J1614-2230

J1744-1134

J2124-3358

.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile

.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile
.par
radioprofile
.tgz
Nançay

Nançay
&
Westerbork
Parkes

Nançay

Nançay

GBT

Nançay

Nançay
Ismael Cognard

Ismael Cognard

Ben Stappers
Simon Johnston

Ismael Cognard

Ismael Cognard

Fernando Camilo

Ismael Cognard

Ismael Cognard
"A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
Abdo, A. A. et al, Science, 2009, 325, 848.
doi:10.1126/science.1176113
Lucas Guillemot
Tyrel Johnson
Matthew Kerr
David Smith
J0007+7303
J0357+32
J0633+0632
J1418-6058
J1459-60
J1732-31
J1741-2054
J1809-2332
J1813-1246
J1826-1256
J1836+5925
J1907+06
J1958+2846
J2021+4026
J2032+4127
J2238+59
D4
.par tempo2
LAT Paul Ray "Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT"
Abdo, A. A. et al, Science, 2009, 325, 840.
doi:10.1126/science.1175558
Michael Dormody
Paul Ray
Pablo Saz Parkinson
Marcus Ziegler
J2021+3651 D4
.par tempo
radioprofile
GBT Fernando Camilo "Pulsed gamma-rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
Abdo, A. A. et al, ApJ, 2009, 700, 1059.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1059
Lucas Guillemot
David Smith
Matthew Kerr
J0030+0451 D4
.par tempo
radioprofile
Nançay Ismael Cognard "Pulsed Gamma-rays from the millisecond pulsar J0030+0451 with Fermi"
Abdo, A. A. et al, ApJ, 2009, 699, 1171.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/1171
Lucas Guillemot
Tyrel Johnson
Matthew Kerr
J0205+6449 D4
.par tempo
radioprofile
GBT/Jodrell Camilo/Stappers "Discovery of Pulsations from the Pulsar J0205+6449 in SNR 3C 58 with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope"
Abdo et al, ApJL, 2009 699, L102.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/L102
Damien Parent
Vela
(B0833-45)
(J0835-4510)
D4
.par tempo2
radioprofile
Parkes Simon Johnston " Fermi LAT Observations of the Vela Pulsar"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2009, ApJ, 696, 1084.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/696/2/1084
Roger Romani
Max Razzano
J1028-5819 D4
.par tempo2
radioprofile
Parkes Simon Johnston "Discovery of Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Young Radio Pulsar PSR J1028-5819 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope"
Abdo, A. A. et al. 2009, ApJL, 695, L72.
doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/L72
Alice Harding
Tyrel Johnson

Note: When using links in the table to send mail to contact authors or to radio contacts, please replace "at" with "@" and "dot" with "." in the email address before sending.


Pulsar Timing Models in D4 Format - Obsolete

Epoch folding pulsars with the Fermi Science Tools (e.g. using gtpphase and gtpsearch) requires use of a pulsar ephemeris database in the D4 FITS format (based on the EGRET pulsar analysis). It is prudent to use the timing models provided for analysis only within the validity range specified within the file. The accuracy of the models may degrade rapidly outside that range, particularly for noisy pulsars. A single D4 FITS file containing timing information for the LAT pulsars to date is available here:

NOTE: The pulsar ephemerides in the FSSC D4 database are provided as a courtesy by the original observers. Users are STRONGLY encouraged to contact the timing observers for the most current information about any pulsar.


Last updated by: Elizabeth Ferrara 07/25/2014